The Muslim rulers of Al-Andalus – an area currently called Andalusia – heavily influenced Spanish culture during the 8th-11th centuries.
The Muslim inhabitants of Al-Andalus, the region currently known as Andalusia, heavily influenced Spanish culture in the 8th-11th centuries. Originally occupied by the Umayyads, the region was affected by several Muslim rulers until the dynasty’s decline in the 11th century and the establishment of Christian rule centuries later. One may still visit notable cultural sites to immerse themselves in the Islamic history.
In the beginning of the 8th century, after the Visigoths, who held a significant amount of authority in Spain, lost their leader in a battle, Ṭāriq ibn Ziyād and the recently formed forces of the Muslim caliphate in Africa marched on Toledo and held it. Mūsā ibn Nuṣayr, one of the caliphate’s governors, then reduced Mérida, and after entering Toledo and Zaragoza, exerted control over the region.
Once Mūsā left his son to govern Al-Andalus, the Muslim rulers began to advance into Gallic and French land, simultaneously leaving the peninsular territory vulnerable to significant rebellions. One of them, led by Abu Muslim, succeeded in temporarily ending the Umayyads’ rule in the area.
A descendent of the Umayyad line, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I, fled to North Africa, though, and after gaining the support of a mercenary army, challenged the rebellious state’s reign in Spain, ultimately defeating it and re-establishing Umayyad rule in the region.
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I’s rule in Al-Andalus coincided with several reforms, including the creation of a state council and division of Spain into six military provinces, along with the beautification of Córdoba. The Mosque-Cathedral of Córdoba was one of the structures built during this period. One may visit the building today and understand possible reasons for its fame, one of which being the beauty of its 11 naves and Roman-inspired columns and arches.
In the late 8th-10th centuries, several challenges to the Umayyad rule arose. Among these, the rebellions of Toledo and Córdoba and attacks by the Norsemen and Alfonso III were significant, although the Umayyads survived, allowing for the rise of the Muslim Golden Age in Spain.
During this period, which occurred during the 10th century, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III, an Umayyad ruler, oversaw Córdoba’s rise to becoming the largest and most cultured city in Europe. It also became the host of architects, artists, craftsmen, geographers and scholars, as well as Europe’s first academy of medicine.
Approximately 5 miles west of Córdoba, Medina Azhara was built. Although the city was a luxurious royal center at first, it was abandoned in the early 11th century and remained in undiscovered ruins until the early 20th century. Travelers may visit the UNESCO World Heritage site today and imagine the power its 10th-11th century rulers had by looking at the excavated architecture.
The decline of the Umayyad dynasty began in the 11th century, approximately 50 years after ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III died. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Sanchuelo, de facto ruler of the caliphate, lost control of the Berber generals, aggravated the Arab aristocrats and was murdered in 1009. The Berbers rose against the Umayyads, sparking discontent for two decades, and in 1031, Córdoba’s leading families abolished the caliphate and declared a republic.
The provinces of Al-Andalus became independent states, and although Muslims remained in control of certain parts of Spain until the late-15th century, their authority failed to reach levels seen in the 8th-10th centuries.